News for Non-Members – June 2020

News for Non-Members – June 2020


Welcome to BIBBA News for Non-members – June 2020

CHAIR’S WELCOME

After the glorious May weather, many of us were wondering when the rain and cooler weather would come. Well, I guess we need to be careful what we wish for!

In this June issue you will be able to:



Early Years:-

Thurs 18 June. 7pm   Keep Your Swarms to Yourself  
view recording here
This will help the beekeeper understand what is happening in a colony when it is preparing to swarm, so they can understand what the various swarm control methods are trying to achieve. Triggers for swarming will be discussed, including some that are often overlooked. A simple method of swarm control will be described that doesn’t result in extra colonies, as many swarm control methods do.

members can download a pdf of the powerpoint presentation

You must be logged into the site to download the file.

Fri 26 June. 7pm         Queen Cells. Their Recognition and Uses
view recording here
Beekeepers often decide what type of queen cells they have in their colonies by where they are placed on the comb. This can be very unreliable, often resulting in the wrong action taken. Attendees will be given some clear guidance on what to look for, so they can manage colonies accordingly. There will be tips on how to use queen cells.

members can download a pdf of the powerpoint presentation

You must be logged into the site to download the file.

Thurs 2 July. 7pm       Simple Colony Increase
view recording here
Beginners are often told to have more than one colony, but aren’t always taught how to do it. If you have a queenright colony, there is no need to buy another colony, as there are many opportunities to make increase.
members can download a pdf of the powerpoint presentation

You must be logged into the site to download the file.

Intermediate/advanced:

Tue 23 June. 7pm       The 2 frame nuc
view recording here
Roger has used this simple and economical method of making increase for well over 40 years. It is not well known because many think that it is too small, although in recent years more beekeepers are using it successfully. Attend this webinar to find out how to do it.

members can download a pdf of the powerpoint presentation

You must be logged into the site to download the file.

Mon 29 June. 7pm     The Patterson Unit
view recording here
This simple method treats the whole apiary as one, rather than as a group of individual colonies. It was originally introduced to overcome the problems many beekeepers have with queens, by bringing together several techniques. It keeps honey production colonies fully productive and is very versatile.

members can download a pdf of the powerpoint presentation

You must be logged into the site to download the file.

Wed 8 July. 7pm   Colony Increase for the Established Beekeeper
https://zoom.us/j/93763175702
Established and larger scale beekeepers often need a constant supply of nucs, so they may use different techniques than the beekeeper with only a few colonies. Included in this webinar is a method, where in good conditions 10 or more colonies that are strong enough to go into winter can be made from one strong colony in the spring. It can be used by local BKAs to provide nucs for beginners and can also be modified to provide fewer nucs if required.


NATIONAL BEE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAMME (NatBIP)

Bee Improvement for All

Jo Widdicombe

Perhaps the biggest stumbling block to improving the quality and consistency of our bees is getting beekeepers to agree on a collective way forward. Although there may be differences of opinion as to which is the best type of bee, if we look at the qualities we want in our bees, it may be surprising how much agreement there can be.
Most people want hardy, docile and productive bees.
How best to achieve this may cause further disagreement amongst beekeepers.

video of queen mating

The mating system of the honey bee, namely the queen mating with multiple drones from several miles radius, has always made improving the quality of our bees a bit problematic. Whilst some beekeepers get around this problem through instrumental insemination, it is never likely to be a ‘mass-market’ technique. This has led to many beekeepers turning to queens reared abroad to get around the issues of inconsistent results.

A queen reared abroad, in the early part of the season, can be introduced to a nucleus in this country to produce a colony that is unlikely to swarm in the same season. This is a system which has gained popularity over the years to the point where imported queen volumes have grown year on year to the present figure of about 22,000 imports per season.

22,000 queens imported per season

Unfortunately, imported queens have a drastic effect on our local bee populations, hybridising the different sub-species of honey bee and making the selection and improvement of our bees more difficult. This random hybridisation means that consistency in improvement programmes is difficult to achieve, with offspring not reliably inheriting the qualities of their parents. The result of importation of honey bees is a poorer quality, hybridised or mongrelised local population. This in turn, fuels the demand for further imports to improve quality.

Some may consider that the added genetic material from imports is an advantage, giving us a more genetically diverse bee population. Genetic diversity is, of course, an important quality in a population, making it resilient and able to withstand a wide range of threats. However, the introduction of maladjusted, or unsuitable, genes, as the SMARTBEES project pointed out, only weakens a population rather than strengthens it.

the mean survival duration of local bee origins was significantly longer than that of foreign ones
American Bee Journal

This system, such as it is, relying on imports for our quality, is what has been considered, by many, as the norm, for decades. It is not a system that has served us well; the evidence is all around us, with bad-tempered, unproductive and swarmy bees being only too common. If we are ever to change our beekeeping for the better, to a more sustainable system, and not relying on outside sources for a tolerable bee, we have got to find a new approach, and unite to achieve that approach.

The time is right for a new approach

As the world population continues to grow, bees and beekeepers assume greater importance for their role in the pollination of crops, than they have ever held. In the natural world, honey bees help to maintain biodiversity in the environment helping plants to set seed for their own benefit and for the creatures that feed on them.

For bees and beekeepers to continue to provide this service in a crowded world, we must develop a sustainable system that produces a docile, robust, and productive bee. It is time to take a fresh look at our beekeeping and commit to a method that produces a better bee for everyone. This will ensure that, in the years to come, we rise to the challenge of maintaining a healthy population that serves the beekeeper, the food producer and the environment well.

Many beekeepers regard the quality of hybrid vigour as an important attribute that produces better performance in bee colonies. It is a well-known technique in plant and animal husbandry producing reliable results which can easily be replicated. Unfortunately, in honey bees, where queens mate with multiple drones from a wide area, control of the resulting population is quickly compromised and we end up with a random genetic mix, making selection and improvement extremely difficult.

Many beekeepers will recognise the scenario of buying in bees of good temper only for things to deteriorate after a generation or two, making further imports necessary. Others, who do not bring in stock, will recognise how the temper of their own stock can deteriorate after neighbours bring in bees of other sub-species. A choice needs to be made between continuing with ever-increasing imports, which ultimately merely seems to add to the problem, or turning our back on imports and making the most of what we have got here already.

where queens mate with multiple drones from a wide area ….
we end up with a random genetic mix, making selection and improvement extremely difficult

Reaching agreement

The biggest obstacle to improving our own bees long-term is the importation of foreign sub-species due to the constant influx of unsuitable and incompatible genes into our bee population. There is some evidence, from various surveys carried out in the last few years that most beekeepers do not favour imports and are aware of the biosecurity risks involved. Many realise that they are a short-term fix that causes longer-term problems. This is where we can find the common ground to unite beekeepers and build a better future for beekeeping in this country.

Once we turn our back on imported stock, that is, bees of non-native sub-species, we stop adding to the problem. Although our bee population may currently be a very hybridised mixture of sub-species, without imports we can start on the road to refining and improving them through a process of natural and artificial selection.

There is a great deal of genetic diversity in the bees already here which will allow us to develop whatever qualities we would like to see in our bees. In some ways there is too much diversity, the population is very hybridised making it difficult to get them to breed true (offspring resembling parents) but these challenges can be overcome.

Maximum Participation

For the National Bee Improvement Programme to achieve success we need to achieve maximum participation from beekeepers. The first rung on the ladder, which beekeepers can unite around, is to commit to not buying imported bees, or offspring of recently imported bees. Only by making this commitment to source home-grown queens can our current bee population develop into a more coherent and useful resource through the processes of natural and artificial selection. A big reduction in the number of imports is the first step to transforming our honey bee population.


THE PURPOSE(S) OF YOUR NUC(S)

This month’s main article is a chapter from an upcoming book, The Nuc – An Essential part of your Sustainable beekeeping Plan…

Bees live a very purposeful life, often drawing comb, storing food etc. for future generations of bees. Similarly, we should do our beekeeping on purpose.  So, what is making you raise one or more nucs?  There could be a single reason or a whole combination.  A non-exhaustive list is below.

  1.  To increase your number of colonies
  2. To introduce a new queen or to re-queen a colony
  3. To allow a virgin queen to mate
  4. To house a swarm or cast (secondary or minor swarm)
  5. As part of a shook swarm process (varroa/disease management)
  6. To create a starter colony for another beekeeper
  7. Swarm prevention measure (split)
  8. To temporarily store surplus queens
  9. To boost a colony
  10. To ‘retire’ a queen
  11. To test a new queen
  12. To draw foundation
  13. To create extra food and/or brood resources
  14. For educational, mentoring or teaching purposes
  15. To make use of available swarm cells
  16. To move stock
  17. To replace winter losses
  18. To sell bees
  19. To save money
  20. As a queen ‘factory’

the full article on nucs is available to BIBBA members at bibba.com/nucs


Beekeepers wanted!

Victoria Buswell (pictured) is asking for BIBBA members to take part in a national DNA sampling exercise during 2020. Please note – this dovetails wonderfully in with the NatBIP strategy to increase the native been DNA. Vicotria’s note reads….

Help the University of Plymouth investigate honeybees across the British Isles. Are you a beekeeper in the British Isles? Do you know of or possess native bees or apiaries that have been managed without significant imports for some time? If so, the University of Plymouth would love to hear from you.

Scientists at the University of Plymouth are aiming to assess the degree of native subspecies, Apis mellifera mellifera, in our British Isles honeybee populations. While previous studies have uncovered native and near native honeybees in the South West, the Inner Hebrides and Ireland, this study aims to uncover any pockets of native bees that are currently unknown and to assess the extent of A.m.mellifera in the wider British populations. This study will give us a snapshot of the current abundance of native honeybees across the British Isles now while providing the beekeeping and scientific community with a starting point and data to refer back to in order to monitor any changes.

This study will use whole genome sequencing. This means that the experiment will examine the entire DNA that codes for the behaviour, appearance and characteristics of that colony. In order to achieve this, the study requires 40 individual honeybees per colony. We will send you a kit to collect your bees and will just ask you some very simple questions about your colony.

BIBBA members will be sent information on how to take part.


FROM THE ARCHIVES

BIBBA is considering a new, regular section for each BM. Philip Denwood has created a digital archive which includes most of the BIBBA and even VBBA (Village Bee Breeder’s Association) newsletters. The library extends back in time over 50+ years!

This month’s example is a link to the two sides of the Village Bee Breeders Association newsletter for March 1970, around 50 years ago.

BEEKEEPING SURVEY
HUSBANDRY RESEARCH

Adam Bourne is a Master’s student at Imperial College London and part of his Master’s project focusses on how different husbandry practices are actually applied by beekeepers in practical settings. He has created a short survey for beekeepers to identify what techniques are being used, and what factors beekeepers consider the biggest threats to the health of their bees. 

Click the this link for the quick (5-10 minutes) survey, which is completely anonymous. No personal information from any participants will be required.
 

OLD BOOKS

Another idea to keep you all reading and learning about bees is to offer a regular download of old books. Like the scanned document in the From the Archives article, the quality of the scanning is very variable and the original book may have been in relatively poor condition when it was scanned.

This month’s example is Beekeeping by Twentieth Century Methods by J. Hand, written in 1911.


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